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Despite their efforts, drilling continues, and the oil is transported in other ways. Refineries. The Obama administration rejected it last year.. Francisco Macias Nguema may not be as notorious as Kim Jong Il or Joseph Stalin, but the people of Equatorial Guinea know him to be just as devastating. The dictator terrorized the country for 11 years, looting and pillaging with wanton bloodlust. Nobody knows the exact body count, but he killed or expelled more than one third of the country’s population.

Cigars and pipesCigars are traditionally comprised of shredded tobacco wrapped in tobacco leaf, though modern mass produced products often employ reconstituted tobacco sheet in wrappers.9 Subvarieties of cigar vary by size, from cigarette like little cigars (which often have a filter) to cigarillos to large cigars (which themselves vary tremendously).10 11 Cigar smoking enjoyed resurgence in the US in the 1990s, particularly among adolescents and those believing it to be less hazardous than cigarettes.9 12 16 The use of cigars and wrappers (blunts) to administer marijuana and other drugs also has generated concern.17 20 Pipes are traditionally composed of a bowl (made of clay or other non combustible material) where the tobacco is placed for burning, attached to a stem through which the smoke is drawn. The tobaccos used in pipes may sometimes be flavoured. Data on characteristics on cigars and pipes are less commonly available than those for cigarettes.9 21 25 Rickert and colleagues reported that total particulate matter extracts from cigars and cigarillos were up to 200% more mutagenic, and pipes 44% more mutagenic per unit of nicotine, relative to cigarette smoke.24 Henningfield et al have shown that cigars differ in pH levels, which may affect their delivery of nicotine and therefore their abuse potential.25 A consistent finding of studies examining smoking behaviours and exposures from pipes and cigars is that former cigarette smokers who adopt cigar or pipe use as a harm reduction strategy typically continue to inhale, whereas primary cigar and pipe users generally do not inhale.26 31 This is confirmed by epidemiological studies, where smokers who have switched to pipes or cigars show little benefit in terms of mortality.32 33 Cigar and pipe use are associated with cancers of the mouth, nose and upper airway, 32 34 40 while cigar use, but not pipe use, appears to be associated with pancreatic cancer.41.

As part of its annual report the EIA also has projections for energy related carbon emissions. EIA Administrator Adam Sieminski says emission levels will depend a lot on what happens with the Obama administration’s Clean Power Plan, which is tied up in the courts now. Considering President elect Donald Trump’s stated desire to boost the coal industry, he could choose to stop defending the plan..

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